Whole IgG antibodies are isolated as intact molecules from antisera by immunoaffinity chromatography. They have an Fc portion and two antigen binding Fab portions joined together by disulfide bonds and therefore they are divalent. The average molecular weight is reported to be about 160 kDa. The whole IgG form of antibodies is suitable for the majority of immunodetection procedures and is the most cost effective.
Alexa Fluor® 647-conjugated antibodies absorb light maximally around 651 nm and fluoresce maximally around 667 nm. They are brighter than Cy5 and DyLight 650 in aqueous mounting media. Alexa Fluor® 647- and APC-conjugated secondary antibodies are the best choice for flow cytometry when secondary antibodies fluorescing at these wavelengths are desired. Alexa Fluor® 647 conjugates are the best choice of far red-emitting dyes for multiple-labeling detection with a confocal microscope.A significant advantage of using Alexa Fluor® 647 over lower wavelength-emitting dyes is the low autofluorescence of biological specimens in this region of the spectrum. However, because of its peak emission at 667 nm, Alexa Fluor® 647 cannot be seen well by eye, and it cannot be excited optimally with a mercury lamp. Therefore, Alexa Fluor® 647 is not recommended for use with conventional epifluorescent microscopes. It is most commonly visualized with a confocal microscope equipped with an appropriate laser for excitation and a far-red detector. Alexa Fluor® 647 conjugates are less expensive alternatives to allophycocyanin conjugates for flow cytometry.